Создана: 13 марта 2013 16:14
Обновлена: 18 марта 2014 17:48
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT NOVOSIBIRSK
Novosibirsk is the largest municipal entity in the Russian Federation with the third largest population count of all Russian cities. The resident population as of January 1, 2012, is 1,498.9 thousand (about 56% of the total Novosibirsk Region population). As of January 1, 2012, the city spans an area of 502.1 sq. km and has a population density of 2,985.3 persons per 1 sq. km.
Novosibirsk is situated at the junction of the forest-steppe and forest natural zones, on the Priobsk plateau, adjacent to the Ob river valley, and at the intersection of key transportation corridors, traditionally used for economic connections between Russian regions, both in the east-west direction (M-51 Baikal federal highway) and in the north-south direction (M-52 Chuisky Tract federal highway and navigable Ob River). The distance from Novosibirsk to Moscow is 3,191 km.
The natural conditions in the area are favorable for the city development. The natural forest areas, Ob water-storage basin, and small rivers and lakes which lie adjacent to the city together form a diverse complex of recreational resources.
The climate in Novosibirsk and its suburbs is continental. According to agro-climatic zoning, Novosibirsk is a moderately warm and insufficiently humid agro-climatic subregion. The average annual air temperature is +0.2ºC, with the average temperature in July being +19ºC and in January, -19ºC.
Novosibirsk was originally established in 1893 as a settlement for builders working on the railway bridge across the Ob River. The impetus for its development was the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
In less than 70 years, Novosibirsk's population reached over a million. It remains the fastest growing city in the world to this day, for which it has been included in the Guinness Book of Records.
Novosibirsk has been the administrative center of the Novosibirsk Region since September 28, 1937, and the center of the Siberian Federal District since May 13, 2000.
Present-day Novosibirsk is the business, trade, financial, scientific, production and cultural center of the Asian part of Russia. It accommodates the residency of the authorized representative of the President of the Russian Federation for the Siberian Federal District, the representative office of the Russian Federation Ministry of External Affairs, the Siberian Customs Administration, representative offices of other federal authorities and agencies, and headquarters of interregional organizations.
Novosibirsk is the center of the Novosibirsk Agglomeration, which incorporates settlements that are economically, socially, and territorially interrelated with Novosibirsk and located up to an hour and a half away from its downtown district. The agglomeration's population exceeds 2 million and accounts for more than three-quarters of the Gross Regional Product of the Novosibirsk Region. It also sets virtually all development trends of the regional economy. The following settlements are part of the agglomeration in the economic sense: cities of regional significance-Berdsk and Ob, urban-type settlements-Koltsovo and Krasnoobsk, the Novosibirsk rural district, as well as a number of other regional districts adjacent to Novosibirsk, including Ordynsky, Toguchinsky, Iskitimsky, Kolyvansky, and others.
The social aspect of the Novosibirsk Urban Agglomeration settlements' interaction is characterized by low territorial segmentation of the labor market and by objective trends of a single labor market formation in adjacent territories. In this regard, a significant role is played by the commuting that takes place between the regional center and the agglomeration settlements due to labor relations as well as cultural, trade, educational, and other connections. Through commuting, Novosibirsk's population daily increases by at least 80 to 100 thousand people.
There are people of over 80 nationalities residing in Novosibirsk, with Russians accounting for most of the population (93.8%). The largest ethnic groups are German, Ukrainian, Tatar, Jewish, and Belorussian. There are also Poles, Koreans, Finns, Buryats, Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Tajiks, and others residing in the city. The city has over thirty registered national and cultural organizations.
The political situation in the city is stable. The municipal government authorities operate in close cooperation with the city's business community and general public.
International Relations of Novosibirsk
There are numerous representative offices and economic missions of foreign states operating in the city, including the Consulates General of Germany, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine, the Vice-Consulate of Kirghizia, the Embassy Department of the Republic of Belarus, Commercial Section of the Embassy of the Republic of Korea, Novosibirsk Department of the Institute for Foreign Trade under the auspices of the Italian Embassy in the RF (ICE), as well as visa application centers of most European Union member states. Over 80 thousand foreign citizens visit Novosibirsk annually for business and personal purposes, and this number grows every year.
The city has established and is actively developing economic and cultural relations with China, Japan, South Korea and other countries, as well as with the following sister cities: Minneapolis and Saint Paul in the USA, Sapporo in Japan, Mianyang in China, Daejeon in the Republic of Korea, Varna in the Republic of Bulgaria, Osh in the Kyrgyz Republic, Kharkov in the Ukraine, and Minsk in Belarus.
The following organizations operate in the city: Israeli Culture Centre, the American Corner USA Information Centre, the Novosibirsk Russian-German House, Sibir-Hokkaido Municipal Cultural Centre, Alliance-Française-Novosibirsk French Cultural Centre, and the Russian-Korean Science and Technology Centre.
There are several dozen foreign companies' representative offices accredited and operating in Novosibirsk, including companies from Germany, the PRC, the USA, Japan, Austria, Sweden, France, Uzbekistan, Hungary, Cyprus, Slovenia, Switzerland, and other countries.
Year after year, Novosibirsk has displayed positive economic dynamics. Novosibirsk's economy is based on industry, trade, services, transport, construction, science, and scientific services. The city is undergoing successful development despite the absence of large resource-extraction enterprises in the region, making it unique among most large Siberian cities.
There are about 137 thousand enterprises and organizations and 44 thousand individual entrepreneurs operating in the city. More than 750 thousand people are engaged in the city's economy, of which 55% are employed at large and medium enterprises and city organizations, and about 25% at small and micro-sized enterprises.
Today, Novosibirsk is a business and capital center. On April 30, 2012, Standard & Poor's rating agency preserved Novosibirsk's long-term credit rating at BВ level, and the national rating at ruAА level. The rating forecast is ‘Positive.'
The city's production system is based on over 250 large and medium production enterprises which account for two-thirds of the regional output of industrial products and services as well as the small business sector.
Novosibirsk's industrial complex is targeted at processing and science-intensive industries. The key industrial branches include the aircraft industry, nuclear industry, engineering industry, power industry, metal working, and pharmaceutics. Novosibirsk is currently one of the leading suppliers of nuclear fuel to the world power markets. Liotech Novosibirsk plant is a good example of advanced, high-tech production with the participation of foreign capital. This plant is the world's largest producer of rechargeable lithium-ion cells.
Novosibirsk is the largest transport hub in Western Siberia, situated at the intersection of major traffic arteries, including the Trans-Siberian Railway. It also has railway access to Central Asia.
The city has four railway stations, including Novosibirsk-Glavny-the largest station east of the Urals. Novosibirsk accommodates the largest Russian sorting depot where a record number of cargoes may be received and handled.
Airlines link Novosibirsk to more than 100 cities in Russia and worldwide. Tolmachevo Airport, being one of largest airports in the country and the largest airport in Siberia, with a Category II Certificate as per the requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is located in the Urban Agglomeration (30 km from Novosibirsk's center, in the territory of Ob City, Novosibirsk Region). Tolmachevo Airport's technical facilities enable it to service all types of modern passenger and cargo aircraft of domestic and foreign manufacture. This high-class airport provides a dynamic link between our city and the world's largest megacities, making it convenient to hold international business trips and tourist visits.
There are two motor roads of federal significance passing through Novosibirsk: M-51 Baikal (from Chelyabinsk through Omsk, Kemerovo, and Krasnoyarsk to Chita, with an exit to Amur Federal Highway, which is currently under construction, connecting Chita and Khabarovsk) and M-52 Chuisky Tract (through Biysk to the Mongolian border).
The urban passenger transport includes buses, trolleybuses, trams, taxicabs, shuttle taxicabs and a subway. All types of public passenger transport are equipped with an automated accounting and cashless fare system.
Novosibirsk's subway, being the first and only subway in the eastern part of the country, was opened at the end of 1985. Currently, it has two active lines with 13 stations and a total length of 15.9 km. The metro bridge is the longest of its kind in the world.
The city is implementing a development program for the subway and other types of high-speed transport, expected to be completed by 2015.
In 2007, the General Urban Plan and local town-building design norms were approved. These documents helped to enhance the efficiency of urban area use significantly. In 2009, the Urban Land Use and Development Rules were approved.
In recent years, Novosibirsk has been making considerable progress in housing construction. The city is one of the leaders in Russia for providing the greatest volume of new housing. In 2011, the total area of new housing was 1,029.8 thousand sq. m, including 113.4 thousand sq. m of individual residential houses.
To implement the Affordable and Comfortable Housing for Russian Citizens national project and to shift to integrated territory development, vast areas of the city were allocated for integrated housing construction: 16 territories with a total area of about 900 ha for multi-story housing construction (with the planned volume of new housing amounting to 8 million sq. m) and 6 territories with a total area of 380 ha for individual and low-rise housing construction (with the planned volume of new housing amounting to 0.7 million sq. m).
In addition, the city is implementing programs to reconstruct and upgrade the housing stock and resettle citizens from slums and unsafe housing. Since 2007, Novosibirsk's engineering infrastructure has been developing as part of a program for integrated development of the city's public utility infrastructure systems.
The following types of facilities are currently under construction: public and administrative, sports and fitness, cultural and recreational, and shopping malls. In 2011, the aggregate financing sources enabled the construction of 568 public and production facilities with a total area of 1,027.2 thousand sq. m, including 25 healthcare facilities, 49 educational, cultural and sporting facilities (including facilities after overhaul repair), 168 public service facilities, 103 administrative facilities, 143 production facilities, etc.
Trade and Service
Trade is one of the most significant elements of Novosibirsk economy. In May 1993, Novosibirsk was admitted to the International Association of World Trade Centers. Today, Novosibirsk is the Russian leader in sales space availability for the public. International trading networks such as Ikea, Leroy Merlin, Auchan, Metro Cash & Carry, and Media Markt have been successfully operating in Novosibirsk for many years.
Siberian Fair, a large international exhibition center that is now a member of the ITE Group, has been operating in the city for over 20 years. Exhibitions are held at the facilities of the largest Siberian exhibition complex, the Novosibirsk Expocenter, which meets the highest world standards and currently ranks among the most advanced centers in the country.
Novosibirsk is one of the largest regional wholesale hubs in Russia. An industrial and logistics park with a total area of 2,000 ha has been set up within 12 kilometers of Novosibirsk. The major investment projects are implemented in the park.
The city has a well-developed financial infrastructure, including about 80 banks, including branches, over 100 investment and insurance companies, a currency exchange, commodity and futures exchanges, and audit and leasing companies. There are representative offices of such large foreign banks as Raiffeisen Bank, Banque Societe Generale Vostok, Commerzbank, Citibank, and Intesa operating in the city.
The city's main provider of regular telephone communication is the Novosibirsk Branch of Rostelecom, with a base of about 580 thousand subscribers.
Mobile communication services in Novosibirsk are supplied by the following providers: Novosibirsk Branch of Rostelecom, Mobile TeleSystems (MTS), VimpelCom (Beeline brand), Mobicom-Novosibirsk (MegaFon), Novosibirsk-Sotovaya Svyaz-450 (Sky Link), and TELE2.
There are about 20 operators available in the ISP market. The largest Internet service providers are Novotelecom, Rostelecom, Sibirskiye Seti, ER-Telecom, CityHomeNet, and others. Many Novosibirsk houses are connected to several ISPs and, therefore, the ISPs' activity is focused on expanding the additional services range. Currently, one service package may include IP-TV, Internet access and a landline.
In 2011, the number of Internet subscribers in Novosibirsk reached 380 thousand.
Novosibirsk is the largest academic science center in the Asian part of Russia. The city concentrates the great scientific potential of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Novosibirsk's rural district, adjacent to the city, accommodates the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Vektor Scientific Production Association. Since 2001, Novosibirsk has been a full member of the World Technopolis Association (WTA), being its only Russian member city.
The city accommodates over 100 organizations of fundamental and sectoral sciences, and 7 international research centers. Our scientific schools have gained wide recognition in the world and carry out applied developments in a wide range of ‘critical technologies,' including microelectronics and nanoelectronics, ray and laser technologies, catalysis technologies, advanced materials, information technologies, and biotechnologies.
In 2011, over 60 institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences carried out joint projects with scientific institutions of 47 countries on over 60 themes, contracts, and grants. For instance, scientists and engineers from the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences took an active part in assembling and launching the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland, supplying 130 million dollars' worth of equipment.
The Technopark as a part of Novosibirsk Akademgorodok accommodates over 140 resident companies that employ a total of five thousand associates. In 2011, the annual revenue of the resident companies amounted to about 400 million USD. The Technopark has a cluster structure with a business incubator, technological services, office, laboratory, and production premises, as well as specialized engineering infrastructure.
Novosibirsk has a wide network of educational institutions. There are 36 higher education institutions in the city (14 universities, 7 academies, and 15 institutes), including 12 branches of higher education institutions based in other cities. There are about 150 thousand students, postgraduates, and doctoral students studying at all of these institutions, of which over 20% come from other regions of the country. Thus, Novosibirsk trains professionals for all of Siberia and the Far East. In addition, the number of foreign students has been on a steady rise in recent years.
For the younger generation, Novosibirsk has 218 schools (with 126.6 thousand students) and 261 preschool facilities (with 55.9 thousand attending children).
Information technologies have been widely implemented in the educational process. Computer availability at Novosibirsk schools is much higher than the average level in Russia.
The city has a sound network of healthcare institutions, which includes 68 hospitals with 16.3 thousand hospital beds and 175 outpatient and polyclinic institutions with a capacity of over 44.8 thousand visits per shift. The city accommodates many regional, federal, and departmental healthcare institutions, including regional clinical hospitals, regional clinical diagnostic centers, regional blood transfusion stations, Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics with a clinic, Research Institute of Blood Circulation Pathology named after academician E. N. Meshalkin, Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution Interbranch Scientific and Technical Complex Eye Microsurgery named after academician S. N. Fedorov, Road Clinical Hospital, Central Clinical Hospital of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and others.
There are over 12.6 thousand doctors specializing in all fields and 16.6 thousand paramedical personnel providing medical care services to the city residents. There are 83.8 doctors available per 10 thousand people.
Today, Novosibirsk is considered the cultural center of Siberia and one of the cultural centers of Russia. There are numerous creative unions and associations operating in the city and a developed network of cultural institutions. These institutions include 15 theatres, including the Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre-the historical and architectural symbol and hallmark of not only Novosibirsk, but all of Russia and Siberia; the Red Torch Academic Theatre; the Globe Academic Youth Theater, and City Drama Theatre led by S. Afanasyev.
The city's musical life is led by the Novosibirsk Philharmonic Society, which has been operating since 1937 and unites about two dozen communities, many of which are well-known outside of Russia. These include the Novosibirsk Academic Symphony Orchestra, chamber choir, chamber orchestra, Filarmonica quartet, Vocal Ensemble of Pavel Sharomov, Insula Magica Early Music Ensemble, Markell's Voices choir, concert brass band, Siberian Dixieland jazz band, Vladimir Tolkachev's Big Band, and others.
In 2011, the Novosibirsk State Conservatory named after M. Glinka celebrated its 55th anniversary. Over the years of its existence, the Conservatory has trained several thousand musicians, including performers, composers, and music experts. Today, it is one of the leading conservatories in the country and is recognized internationally.
The city has 82 public libraries with a library stock of about 5 million items. The State Public Scientific and Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, being the largest in Siberia, has been operating in Novosibirsk since 1966.
The city's points of interest include 15 museums, the Novosibirsk Art Gallery, Botanic Garden, and a unique scientific institution for educational, cultural and recreation purposes-a zoological park that has no analogues in the Siberian region.
Currently, the Novosibirsk Zoo accommodates about 10,000 specimens of 702 animal species. The Zoo has one of the world's best collections of felines and weasels. Over 300 of its species are included in the International Red Book, the Red Data Book of Russia, and the Red Data Book of Novosibirsk Region. Fifty-six species are registered in international herdbooks. The Zoo's team takes part in 53 international programs for the preservation of rare and endangered animal species and is a member of three international unions: EAZA (European Association of Zoos and Aquaria), EARAZA (Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums), and WAZA (World Association of Zoos and Aquariums). The Zoo participates in the ISIS international computer program and is in contact with over 150 zoos in 44 countries. In 2012, the Novosibirsk Zoo celebrated its 65th anniversary.
In 2012, Novosibirsk gained a new point of interest. On February 8, 2012, on the Day of Russian Science, the Planetarium Children's and Youth Center was opened. This Novosibirsk Center for Astrophysics is the biggest of its kind in the Asian part of Russia.